DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20214007

Unusual complications of a common disease in COVID times: a case series

Avneet Kaur, Avneet Singh Chawla, T. Lirangla Sangtam, Mandalapu Himaja, Pooja Sewalia

Abstract


Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency worldwide. 20-30% of cases of appendicitis can complicate which is defined as perforation, purulent peritoneal collection, abscess formation and generalized peritonitis. The risk of perforated appendicitis increases when appropriate treatment for acute appendicitis is delayed. There has been an avoidance of both urgent or emergency and routine medical care because of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) concerns all over the world. In our study, the delayed presentation of the patients with acute appendicitis to the hospital prevented appropriate management leading to a much more morbid disease course. Increasing accessibility of medical and telehealth services might help prevent delay of needed care. Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, persons experiencing a medical emergency should seek and be provided care without delay.  


Keywords


Appendicitis, COVID, Perforation, Complicated appendicitis, Obstruction, Abscess

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed SA, Makama JG, Mohammed U, Sanda RB, Shehu SM, Ameh EA. Epidemiology of appendicitis in Northern Nigeria: A 10-year review. Sub Saharan Afr J Med. 2014;1:185-90.

Klempa I. Current therapy of complicated appendicitis. Chirurg. 2002;73(8):799-804.

Omari AH, Khammash MR, Qasaimeh GR, Shammari AK, Yaseen MK, Hammori SK. Acute appendicitis in the elderly: Risk factors for perforation. World J Emerg Surg. 2014;9:6.

Ng CP, Chiu HS, Chung CH. Significance of appendicoliths in abdominal pain. J Emerg Med 2003;24:459-61.

Jones MW, Lopez RA, Deppen JG. Appendicitis. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL). 2020.

Ishiyama M, Yanase F, Taketa T, Makidono A, Suzuki K, Omata F et al. Significance of size and location of appendicoliths as exacerbating factor of acute appendicitis. Emerg Radiol. 2013;20(2):125-30.

Imran JB, Madni TD, Minshall CT, Mokdad AA, Subramanian M, Clark AT et al. Predictors of a histopathologic diagnosis of complicated appendicitis. J Surg Res. 2017;214:197-202.

Von Titte SN, McCabe CJ, Ottinger LW. Delayed appendectomy for appendicitis: causes and consequences. Am J Emerg Med. 1996;14(7):620-2.

Livingston EH, Woodward WA, Sarosi GA. Disconnect between incidence of nonperforated and perforated appendicitis: implications for pathophysiology and management. Ann Surg. 2007;245:886-92.

Arnold S. Jackson, Rollin Perkins. Reducing the mortality of perforated appendicitis: A study of one hundred cases. The American Journal of Surgery.1940;49(2):250-8.

Hua J, Yao L, He ZG, Xu B, Song ZS. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis: a case report. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8(3):3334-8.

Ishigami K, Khanna G, Samuel I, Dahmoush L, Sato Y. Gas-forming abdominal wall abscess: unusual manifestation of perforated retroperitoneal appendicitis extending through the superior lumbar triangle. Emerg Radiol. 2004;10:207-9.

Taif S, Alrawi A. Missed acute appendicitis presenting as necrotising fasciitis of the thigh. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;2014:bcr2014204247.

Di Marco JN, Poujol A, Rimet Y, Jarry JM, Bryselbout MA, Brusquet Y. Subphrenic abscess due to ectopic appendicitis. Arch Pediatr. 1999;6(9):975-8.

Barnard HL. Three Lectures on Acute Appendicitis. Brit Med Jour. 1908;281-333.

Hotchkiss LWV. Acute Intestinal Obstruction following Appendicitis. A Report of Three Cases Successfully Operated upon. Ann Surg. 1901;34:660-77.

Makama JG, Kache SA, Ajah LJ, Ameh EA. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Appendicitis: A Systematic Review. J West Afr Coll Surg. 2017;7(3):94-115.

Ahmed KA, Hamdy AM, Seifeldin MI, Elkeleny MR. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to appendiceal tourniquet: a case report and review of literature. J Med Case Reports. 2019;13(1):208.

Maly O, Paral J. Appendicitis as a rare cause of mechanical small-bowel obstruction: A literature review of case reports. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2016;29:180-4.

Lawani I, Houndje CY, Souaïbou YI, Gbéssi DG, Attolou SG, Gnangnon FH, et al. Internal hernia strangulated on appendicular tourniquet: a case report of an exceptional anomaly of the appendix revealed by a rare hernia. Surg Case Rep. 2019;5(1):112.

Bhandari L, Mohandas P. Appendicitis as a cause of intestinal strangulation: a case report and review. World J Emerg Surg. 2009;4:34.

Cho HW, Koo YJ, Min KJ, Hong JH, Lee JK. Pelvic inflammatory disease in virgin women with Tubo-ovarian abscess: a single-center experience and literature review. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2017;30(2):203-8.

El Hentour K, Millet I, Pages-Bouic E, Curros-Doyon F, Molinari N, Taourel P. How to differentiate acute pelvic inflammatory disease from acute appendicitis ? A decision tree based on CT findings. Eur Radiol. 2018;28(2):673-82.

Bailey H. The Ochsner-Sherren (delayed) treatment of acute appendicitis: indications and technique. Br Med J. 1930;1(3603):140-3.

Coldrey E. Treatment of acute appendicitis. Br Med J. 1956;2(5007):1458-61.

Sakorafas GH, Sabanis D, Lappas C, Mastoraki A, Papanikolaou J, Siristatidis C et al. Interval routine appendectomy following conservative treatment of acute appendicitis: Is it really needed. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;4(4):83-6.

Becker P, Fichtner-Feigl S, Schilling D. Clinical Management of Appendicitis. Visc Med. 2018;34:453-8.

Czeisler MÉ, Marynak K, Clarke KE. Delay or Avoidance of Medical Care Because of COVID-19–Related Concerns — United States. 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:1250-7.