DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-2902.isj20194052

Analysis of serum level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, calcium and lipid profile in carcinoma breast

Sanjeev Saha, Bipin Kumar Singh, Kirti Singh, Rahul Khanna, Ram Niwas Meena

Abstract


Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the major surgical problems in India, particularly in younger females. There are conflicting reports regarding the association between the serum lipid profiles, vitamin D, calcium and BC. The objective of the study was to measure the serum vitamin D, calcium and lipid profile levels in BC, benign breast diseases (BBD) and healthy control (HC), and compared these variables with clinico-pathological parameters in BC patients.

Methods: Forty histologically confirmed invasive BC, 20 BBD patients and 20 healthy individuals taken as controls were enrolled for estimation of serum lipid profile, calcium and vitamin D. The study variables were compared with all three groups. In BC group, the levels were also compared with clinico-pathological parameters.

Results: The mean age of subjects in BC, BBD and HC group was 48.88±11.33, 31.10±3.93 and 36.30±5.97 years respectively. The levels of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL and calcium was significantly increased and vitamin D was significantly decreased in BC patients as compared with BBD and HC group (p<0.001). On comparing lipid profile, calcium and vitamin D in receptor positive BC patients and triple negative BC patients, only serum HDL and serum calcium was significantly high in receptor positive BC patients (p=0.047 and p=0.041).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that lower vitamin D level and higher calcium and lipid profile level could be an important etiopathological factor in the causation of BC. Correction of these factors could be used as a prophylactic and preventive strategy in the population against BC.


Keywords


25-hydroxycholecalciferol, Calcium, Lipid profile, Breast cancer

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nandakumar A, Anantha N, Venugopal TC, Sankaranarayanan R, Thimmasetty K, Dhar M. Survival in breast cancer: A population-based study in Bangalore, India. Int J Cancer. 1995;60:593-6.

Agarwal G, Pradeep PV, Aggarwal V, Yip CH, Cheung PS. Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women. World J Surg. 2007;31:1031-40.

Shetty P. India faces growing breast cancer epidemic. Lancet. 2012;379(9820):992-3.

McKeown N. Antioxidants and breast cancer. Nutr Rev. 1999;57:321–4.

Wesseling C, Antich D, Hogstedt C, Rodriguez AC, Ahlbom A. Geographical differences of cancer incidence in Costa Rica in relation to environmental and occupational pesticide exposure. Ind J Epidemiol. 1999;28:365–74.

Holmes MD, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE. Association of dietary intake of fat and fatty acids with risk of breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc. 1999;281:914 –20.

Park SY, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE, Wilkens LR. Dietary fat and breast cancer in postmenopausal women according to ethnicity and hormone receptor status: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:216-28.

Abou-Issa H, Moeschberger M, el-Masry W, Tejwani S, Curley RW Jr, Webb TE. Relative efficacy of glucarate on the initiation and promotion phases of rat mammary carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 1995;15:805–10.

Kesse-Guyot E, Bertrais S, Duperray B, Arnault N, Bar-Hen A, Galan P, et al. Dairy products, calcium and the risk of breast cancer: Results of the French SUVIMAX prospective study. Ann NutrMetab. 2007;51:139–45.

Lin J, Manson JE, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Zhang SM. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1050–9.

Giovannucci E. The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: A review (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:83–95.

McCarty MF. Parathyroid hormone may be a cancer promoterdan explanation for the decrease in cancer risk associated with ultraviolet light, calcium, and vitamin D. Med Hypotheses. 2000;54:475–82.

Almquist M, Manjer J, Bondeson L, Bondeson AG. Serum calcium and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective cohort study of 7,847 women. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:595–602.

Gonzalez G, Alvarado JN, Rojas A, Navarrete C, Velasquez CG, Arteaga E. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Chilean healthy postmenopausal women with normal sun exposure: additional evidence for a worldwide concern. Menopause. 2007;14(3 Pt 1):455-61.

American Cancer Society News Center. Study Sees link Between Vitamin D, Breast Cancer Prognosis. American cancer Society 16 May 08; Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS1. Accessed on 16 May 2008.

Yin L, Grandi N, Raum E, Haug U, Arndt V, Brenner H. Meta-analysis: Serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer. 2010.

Ingraham BA, Bragdon B, Noche A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24(1):139–49.

McCullough ML, Rodriquez C, Diver WR, Feigelson HS, Stevens VL, Thun MJ, et al. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(12):2898-904.

Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin d and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Sep 4;94(17):1301-11.

Robien K, Cutler GJ, Lazovich D. Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;1(7):775–82.

Arriagada R, Le MG, Dunant A, Tubiana M, Contesso G. Twenty-five years of follow-up in patients with operable breast carcinoma: correlation between clinicopathologic factors and the risk of death in each 5-year period. Cancer. 2006;106:743–50.

Fisher ER, Anderson S, Tan-Chiu E, Fisher B, Eaton L, Wolmark N. Fifteen-year prognostic discriminants for invasive breast carcinoma: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol-06. Cancer. 2001;91:1679–87.

Raina V. Green M. Epidemiology, screening and diagnosis of breast cancer in the Asia–Pacific region: current perspectives and important considerations. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2008;4:5‐13.

Sangma MB, Panda K, Dasiah S. A clinico-pathological study on benign breast diseases. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7:503-6.

Dixit AK, Raza MA, Sharan J, Chauhan CGS, Das B, Popat A. Serum Lipid Profiles in Breast Carcinoma and Benign Breast Diseases in Rohilkhand Region of Uttar Pradesh. IJSS J Surg. 2016;2(3):22-9.

Kakoglu E, Karaarslan Y, Karaasalan HM, Baloglu H. Alteration in serum lipids and lipoproteins in breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 1994;82:175–8.

Stepsenwol J. Carcinogenic effect of cholesterol in mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1966;121:168–71.

Potischman N, McCulloch CE, Byers T, Houghton L, Nemoto T. Associations between breast cancer, plasma triglycerides, and cholesterol. Nutr Cancer. 1991;15:205–15.

Takatani O, Okumoto T, Kosano H. Genesis of breast cancer in Japanese: a possible relationship between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and serum lipid components. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1991;18:527–9.

Goodwin PJ, Boyd NF, Hanna W, et al. Elevated levels of plasma triglycerides are associated with histologically defined premenopausal breast cancer risk. Nutr Cancer. 1997;27:284–92.

Rossner S, Wallgren A. Serum lipoproteins and proteins after breast cancer surgery and effects of tamoxifen. Atherosclerosis. 1984;52:339–46.

Ray G, Husain SA. Role of lipids, lipoproteins and vitamins in women with breast cancer. Clin Biochem. 2001;34:71-6.

Chang S, Hou M, Tsai S, Wu S, Hou L, Ma H, Shann T, Wu S, Tsai L.. The association between lipid profiles and breast cancer among Taiwanese women. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45:1219-23.

Furberg A, Jasienska G, Bjurstam N, Torjesen P, Torjesen PA, Emaus A, et al. Metabolic and hormonal profiles: HDL cholesterol as a plausible biomarker of breast cancer risk. The norweigan EBBA study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;14(1):33-40.

Kucharska-Newton A, Rosamond W, Mink P, Alberg A, Shahar E, Folsom A. HDL-cholesterol and incidence of breast cancer in the ARIC cohort study. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18(9):671-7.

Shah FD, Shukla SN, Shah PM, Patel HR, Patel PS. Significance of alterations in plasma lipid profile levels in breast cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2008;7:33-41.

Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1586-91.

Martin E, Miller M, Krebsbach L, Beal JR, Schwartz GG, Sahmoun AE. Serum calcium levels are elevated among women with untreated postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:251-7.

Garland CF, Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Grant WB, Giovannucci EL, Lipkin M, et al. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2007;103:708-11.